Your Menstrual Cycle: Ovulation and Menstruation

Every woman progresses through their menstrual cycle about once a month. This menstrual cycle continues throughout the child bearing years, until you reach menopause. The menstrual cycle includes the process of ovulation and menstruation that prepares your body for pregnancy.

Some women, however, experience problems with their menstrual cycle, making it difficult to become pregnant. Your reproductive endocrinologist can help to determine if your menstrual period is contributing to your fertility issues.

What is the Menstrual Cycle?

Your menstrual cycle refers to the natural cycle of ovulation and menstruation that occurs every month in women of chilbearing age. It is what allows women to become pregnant in the first place - without the menstrual cycle none of us would even be here right now.

You may have heard that the average menstrual cycle lasts about 28 days, but actually, the length of your cycle depends on your own body and health. Menstrual cycles can last anywhere between 21 and 35 days. The first day of your menstrual cycle coincides with the first day of menstrual bleeding, while the last day of your menstrual cycle comes just before your next menstrual bleed.

Hormones Involved in the Menstrual Cycle

There are a variety of hormones involved in regulating your menstrual cycle.

These include:

  • Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) : FSH is a hormone produced by your pituitary gland, a tiny organ found inside of your brain. FSH helps to encourage follicles to form and eggs to be released. It also stimulates estrogen production within the body.
  • Luteining Hormone (LH): LH is a hormone involved in stimulating ovulation and follicular development. LH also helps with the development of the corpus luteum.
  • Estrogen: Estrogen is one of the main female sex hormones. It is produced by the ovaries and breasts and by other areas of the body. Estrogen plays a vital role in egg growth.
  • Progesterone: Progesterone is produced by the corpus luteum, after ovulation has taken place. Progesterone helps to prepare the endometrial lining for possible pregnancy.

Stages in the Menstrual Cycle

The menstrual cycle is made up of several distinct stages. These stages all contribute to overall fertility and pregnancy.

The First Days of the Menstrual Cycle

The menstrual cycle actually begins with the first day of your period. During this time, estrogen levels in your body are extremely low. This signals your body to produce FSH. As the levels of FSH in your bloodstream rise, approximately 20 follicles inside of your ovary begin to mature. One of these follicles will begin to secrete estradiol, a type of estrogen, while the weaker follicles die off.

As your period ends, your body will prepare for ovulation by creating a thicker uterine lining, appropriate for implantation. Your cervical mucus will also change, from thick and clumpy, to thin and slippery.

Table of Contents
1. Your Menstrual Cycle
2. Are your periods healthy?
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